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¿Qué revelan los microbios en la obra de Leonardo Da Vinci?

diciembre 23, 2020

Un grupo multidisciplinario formado por restauradores, microbiólogos, historiadores y biólogos moleculares ha recogido muestras biológicas de algunas de las obras del Renacimiento más importantes.

Los resultados acaban de ser publicados y nos permiten entender que cada obra es un ecosistema con una gran cantidad de bacterias.

A través de técnicas sofisticadas, los científicos han podido analizar, por ejemplo, las obras de Leonardo Da Vinci, uno de los artistas más trascendentales de la historia.

En los célebres trabajos del autor, los profesionales han encontrado restos de virus y arqueas (grupo de microorganismos), que se han acumulado durante siglos. También han dado con la presencia de ADN humano en todas las obras analizadas.

La imagen muestra una de las obras de Leonardo Da Vinci analizadas para descubrir bacterias.
ICPAL.

Los investigadores incluso creen que parte de este material biológico se encuentra en las obras desde que fueron pintadas por el genio italiano.

“Albergaban una gran cantidad de material genético, lo que nosotros llamamos bioarchivo”, explica Guadalupe Piñar, microbióloga de la Universidad de Recursos Naturales y Ciencias de la Vida de Viena.

“No se puede hablar de vida en términos absolutos, pues el ADN no es una garantía de viabilidad. Es decir, puede ser que parte del ADN sea fósil, o sea de organismos que ya no son viables (no vivos), pero cuyo ADN ha podido persistir bajo determinadas circunstancias por largos periodos de tiempo en los objetos”.

¿Para qué sirve esta información?

Los científicos debieron tratar las obras con mucho cuidado. Para el análisis, utilizaron una suerte de microaspiradora que capturaba en una membrana las partículas depositadas en los dibujos.

Los autores del estudio publicado en Frontiers in Microbiology creen que la técnica aplicada podría servir para detectar falsificaciones o certificar que una obra pertenece a un artista en particular.

En el caso de Leonardo, sus trabajos tienen un microbioma propio que ha adquirido con el paso del tiempo, el cual se ha traspasado a la obra a través de la manipulación humana o la deposición de distintos insectos.

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